Revealing Fine-Grained Values and Opinions in Large Language Models

Dustin Wright*, Arnav Arora*, Nadav Borenstein, Shrishti Yadav, Serge Belongie, and Isabelle Augenstein

Published in arXiv, 2024

Uncovering latent values and opinions in large language models (LLMs) can help identify biases and mitigate potential harm. Recently, this has been approached by presenting LLMs with survey questions and quantifying their stances towards morally and politically charged statements. However, the stances generated by LLMs can vary greatly depending on how they are prompted, and there are many ways to argue for or against a given position. In this work, we propose to address this by analysing a large and robust dataset of 156k LLM responses to the 62 propositions of the Political Compass Test (PCT) generated by 6 LLMs using 420 prompt variations. We perform coarse-grained analysis of their generated stances and fine-grained analysis of the plain text justifications for those stances. For fine-grained analysis, we propose to identify tropes in the responses: semantically similar phrases that are recurrent and consistent across different prompts, revealing patterns in the text that a given LLM is prone to produce. We find that demographic features added to prompts significantly affect outcomes on the PCT, reflecting bias, as well as disparities between the results of tests when eliciting closed-form vs. open domain responses. Additionally, patterns in the plain text rationales via tropes show that similar justifications are repeatedly generated across models and prompts even with disparate stances. Download paper here

Recommended bibtex:

      title={Revealing Fine-Grained Values and Opinions in Large Language Models},
      author={Wright, Dustin and Arora, Arnav and Borenstein, Nadav and Yadav, Srishti and Belongie, Serge and Augenstein, Isabelle},